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【小松露,大生意】Little truffle, big business  

2014-07-11 19:55:24|  分类: 鸟语花香(澳音) |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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【小松露,大生意】Little truffle, big business - 梨花影 - 我的似水流年
 

CHRIS UHLMANN: The little gem of the fungus family, the truffle, could be big business for Australia. A festival in Melbourne this weekend will stage hunts and feature truffle chefs to showcase the delights of the delicacy. Some producers hope Australia might rise to become the world's biggest truffle producer within the decade.

Rachael Brown went to find out what the fuss is all about on the heels of a truffle-hunting dog called Bear.

RACHAEL BROWN: I'm in the picturesque Yarra Valley with Stuart Dunbar from Yarra Valley Truffles and his American bulldog, Bear.

(Question to Stuart Dunbar) You've got a list of what we're looking for today?

STUART DUNBAR: I've got quite a few trees to check today. We go past those and see if Bear reacts to any.

RACHAEL BROWN: He's got a tougher job today, it's a bit wet.

STUART DUNBAR: Yes it makes it hard for both Bear and myself. It washes the aroma back into the soil and we're going to have truffles that smelled divine a few days earlier, and there'll be no discernible aroma after a couple of inches of rain overnight.

RACHAEL BROWN: What is it about the soil out in this part of the world that makes for good truffle growing?

STUART DUNBAR: That's one of the ones that people aren't exactly certain on. There's been quite a few successful truffieres in Victoria and Western Australia. They're in these red volcanic soils, which is by no means the type of soil that they've used traditionally. The natural environment is a limestone-based soil, very, very high PH.

RACHAEL BROWN: Mr Dunbar checks his meticulous notes for those trees expected to yield truffles soon, then sends in the expert.

STUART DUNBAR: Bear, can you check these please?

(Sound of dog sniffing)

RACHAEL BROWN: Bear marks the spot with a heavy paw mark and his master does some careful digging as to not damage the treasure.

It's described to me like music. The early aroma is a top single note, as it ripens it's a more structured chord, then 10 days from the first whiff you have a complex symphony.

STUART DUNBAR: You take one whiff and then you bury your nose beside the truffle and just go, (sniffs) oh, this is it, this is a great truffle.

RACHAEL BROWN: The truffle is checked for maturity and insect damage, then covered over with a mound of earth until it's ready to harvest.

It was love at first taste for Mr Dunbar and his planting of English and Evergreen oaks and Hazelnut trees could be yielding up to 10 kilos of truffles by 2016.

(Question to Stuart Dunbar) What's the biggest one you've found?

STUART DUNBAR: A 700 gram beauty, down towards the bottom of the truffiere.

RACHAEL BROWN: A big one, 1.17 kilogram one, was found.

STUART DUNBAR: Up in New South Wales. That's an absolute beauty. I'm just wondering how long it'll take me to beat that record. I believe it was sold for two and a half thousand dollars to a local restaurant.

RACHAEL BROWN: How do you prefer to eat them?

STUART DUNBAR: That sous vide style where it's absolute melt in the mouth-type chicken and then the truffle all the way through. I'm salivating now thinking about it.

RACHAEL BROWN: You're making me hungry.

It's become quite a staple in European fare but do you think the truffle has had its culinary coming of age here in Australia yet?

STUART DUNBAR: Not yet. I think it's imminent. I've noticed there's been a real groundswell in the awareness of truffle.

When I first started finding my ripe truffles, if you talked to people about truffle they'd say, "oh what, the chocolates?" Now maybe two in 10 is, "Yes, I've tried a truffle, it's lovely."

Australia does have the vast majority of the world's truffles.

RACHAEL BROWN: Hence there's so much untapped potential, says producer Nigel Wood, who's directing the Truffle Melbourne Festival this weekend.

NIGEL WOOD: We're number four currently after France, Italy and Spain in the production of truffles but we're catching up pretty fast. Production's increasing by 20 or 25 per cent every year. It is even possible that Australia could be a number one truffle producer within the decade I think.

RACHAEL BROWN: It's a little safer here too than in Europe where some farmers can have their fingers bitten off by overzealous truffle hunting pigs.

NIGEL WOOD: (Laughs) You bet, yes.

RACHAEL BROWN: How often does that happen?

NIGEL WOOD: I don't need to sit in my stone hut overnight with my loaded shotgun for fear of people jumping over the fence and coming and pinching my truffles just yet, but the day may come, the day may come.

CHRIS UHLMANN: A frightening day indeed. Festival director of Truffle Melbourne, Nigel Wood, speaking with Rachael Brown. 


http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2014/s4043930.htm




以下信息摘自维基百科:


松露英语Truffle)是一种类,和蘑菇、灵芝一样都是真菌。分类为子囊菌门西洋松露科西洋松露属学名Tuber),大约有10种不同的品种。松露多数在阔叶树的根部着丝生长,散布于树底120~150厘米方圆,块状主体藏于地下5~40厘米。

松露有一种特殊的香气,自古便有许多人为之着迷。


那股香气曾被形容为“人间所无,有点难以置信,殆凡气味绝佳者概如是也。”那气味渗透力之强也十分惊人,可以力透层层纸张,甚至塑胶袋。只需要轻嗅一下就够了,若是吸得浓一点就过头了,会叫你食欲全无的,因为那气味好浓又好臭。


松露种植


虽然松露的种植并不容易,必须使用孢子与其他可形成共生关系的正常的活树来繁育,这使得历史上有许多失败的尝试。但1808年,法国阿普特市的Joseph Talon把松露橡树周围散落的橡实种植下去,若干年后,在新生长出的橡树根部的泥土中果然发现了松露。1847年,法国卡庞特拉市的Auguste Rousseau用这种橡实种植了7公顷的橡树林,收获了大量松露,他也因此获得1855年世界博览会奖章。法国南部有富含石灰岩的土壤和干热的气候,适合松露生长,而19世纪末期流行病摧毁了当地的葡萄种植业和蚕丝业,于是大片的土地被用来种植松露,产量在19世纪末达到上百吨。1890年,松露树的种植面积达到了75000公顷。

后来工业化使得大量农村人口进入城市,松露种植业因此萎缩。第一次世界大战使法国劳动力锐减20%,沉重打击了松露种植业。因为松露树产松露的年龄是30年,因此一战后原有的树林产松露的数量开始减少,到1945年后,松露的产量暴跌,价格急速攀升。在1900年,松露是一种大众食品,而现在却成了高贵食材。

近几十年新的松露种植业又发展起来,目前法国出产的松露80%源于人工种植。但种植业者限产以防止价格暴跌,因此产量没有恢复到19世纪末高峰期的水平。目前英国、美国、西班牙、瑞士、新西兰、澳大利亚和智利都有松露种植业。

松露采集

相比猪,狗的嗅觉也很灵敏,而且更容易控制。但除了拉戈托罗马阁挪露犬(英语Lagotto Romagnolo)外,别的狗都需要经过训练来记住松露的气味。

不管是天然松露还是人工种植的松露都生长在地下,采集并不容易,传统上是利用的灵敏嗅觉来寻找及挖掘松露。特别是母猪最为敏感,是天生的松露猎人,因为松露的气味与诱发母猪性冲动雄甾烯醇类似。不过也由于母猪非常喜欢松露,所以常直接将找到的松露吃下,不易为采集人所控制。而且猪用鼻子拱开地面时会破坏松露的菌丝体,导致以后松露的产量下降,因此1985年之后意大利政府禁止使用猪来发掘松露。

烹饪

市场上现在有新鲜松露和保存在盐水中的松露。因为价格高,而且味道浓烈,松露一般只用一点点。白松露一般是生食,磨碎后撒在意大利面煎蛋上。松露可以切成薄片插在加在肉里一同烤制,或用来烤鹅肝。有些奶酪中也添加了松露。黑松露的味道没有白松露那么浓烈,可以用来做松露盐或松露蜂蜜。过去松露要去皮,现在多采用研磨避免浪费。

松露油

松露油比较便宜而且带有松露的味道。但绝大多数松露油不含松露,是橄榄油添加了合成松露香剂,如二甲硫基甲烷。这样做可以极大降低成本,而且储存耐久。

松露伏特加

松露伏特加是少数不需要添加合成松露香剂的松露产品。可用来调制鸡尾酒。有厨师用它来做菜,使菜有松露的香味



Where to get a truffle fix in Melbourne

Truffle shopping

Prahran market

Mushroom expert Damian Pike has just started selling Western Australian and Canberra truffles and is taking a wait-and-see approach with the other states as Victorian and Tasmanian truffles slowly start to come onto the market. He says the WA and ACT/NSW truffles are already proving to be excellent and it will be "a wonderful year for truffles". Pike's truffles are priced at $3-$4 per gram.

Shop 116, Prahran Market, 163 Commercial Road, Prahran


全文:

http://www.goodfood.com.au/good-food/eat-out/where-to-get-a-truffle-fix-in-melbourne-20140627-3ax9u.html


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